Document Type : Original Research


Langara College


The Sasanian spāh (army) is well known for its application of war doctrines and tactics, military architecture and logistics; however, there have been no academic analyses as to the role of geography, climate and the weaponization of the elements in warfare. This article examines (1) the spāh’s utilization of geographical elements in the planning of battles (2) consideration of climactic factors for battle planning, and (3) weaponization of water against enemy forces. The article concludes with the observation of the seminal role of environmental elements in impacting Sasanian military performance in set-piece battles and siege operations.